For example, a distance of 100 meters at 10 seconds is: vh = 100/10 = 10 m/s. So, if the projectile took 5 second to reach maximum height: vv = (9.8)(5) = 49.4 m/s.

Table of Contents

## How is physics used in catapults?

Catapults operate using projectile motion, which is a form of science called Physics. Catapult physics is basically the use of stored energy to hurl a projectile (the payload). The three primary energy storage mechanisms are tension, torsion, and gravity.

## How do you calculate the launch angle of a catapult?

## What is the force of a catapult?

What forces do catapults and trebuchets use? Catapults: Catapults take advantage of elastic force, involving stretched, compressed, bent, or twisted material. To prepare a catapult to launch a rock, it takes work to twist a rope (provide torsion), to stretch a rubber band (provide tension), or bend wood.

## How do you calculate the velocity of a projectile from a catapult?

- Equation 1: df=di+vit+12at2.
- Equation 2: vf=vi+at.
- Equation 3: v2f=v2i+2a(dfโdi)
- Equation 4: df=di+12(vf+vi)t.
- Equation 5: x(t)=x0+vx,0t+12axt2.
- Equation 6: x(t)=vx,0t.
- Equation 7: vx,0=v0cos(ฮธ) v x , 0 = v 0 cos โก
- Equation 8: x(t)=v0cos(ฮธ)t x ( t ) = v 0 cos โก

## How do you calculate the mechanical advantage of a catapult?

A catapult is a 3rd class lever, which means the effort force is in between the load and the fulcrum. To calculate the mechanical advantage you divide the input force by the output force.

## How do you make a catapult launch higher?

Use the tension of bungee cords as opposed to springs to power your catapult. The cords should be attached to the front of the catapult and at the front of the catapult arm. When the arm is pulled back, the tension in the cord will pull the arm forward.

## Why is 45 degrees the best launch angle?

As ball speed increases, so does the drag force and the lower is the required launch angle. A launch at 45 degrees would allow the ball to remain in the air for a longer time, but it would then be launched at a lower horizontal speed at the start and it would slow down more because of the longer flight time.

## What are the 4 types of catapult?

The main types of catapults used were the trebuchet, mangonel, onager, and ballista.

## How do you calculate the launch angle?

So our equation for the launch angle of the projectile is equals the inverse sin of the square root of two โ divided by . All that’s left to do is to substitute our known values of , , and โ into this equation to calculate .

## How does the angle of a catapult affect the distance?

Tension is effectively the opposite of compression. The angle at which the throwing arm is pulled back to will affect both the distance the projectile will travel and also the height that it reaches when in the air.

## Does the length of a catapult arm affect distance?

Overall, as the arm length of the catapult increased, the ball was thrown farther.

## How do you calculate projectile motion?

- Horizontal velocity component: Vx = V * cos(ฮฑ)
- Vertical velocity component: Vy = V * sin(ฮฑ)
- Time of flight: t = 2 * Vy / g.
- Range of the projectile: R = 2 * Vx * Vy / g.
- Maximum height: hmax = Vyยฒ / (2 * g)

## How does a catapult relate to force and motion?

The catapult you are about to make uses elastic potential energy stored in a wooden stick as you bend it. When you let go, this stored energy is released, converted into energy of motion and transferred to the missile (the launched object), which then flies through the air.

## What is thrust in a catapult?

On the marshmellow, the thrust was the force of the catapult launching it forward. The drag was of course air resistance.

## How do you calculate launch velocity?

The launch velocity of a projectile can be calculated from the range if the angle of launch is known. It can also be calculated if the maximum height and range are known, because the angle can be determined. v0 = m/s = ft/s.

## How do you build a catapult for physics class?

- Stack five craft sticks together and wrap a rubber band around each end.
- Stack two craft sticks and wrap a rubber band around only one end.
- Slide the five sticks in-between the two sticks, as shown.
- Wrap a rubber band where the two sections meet to hold the catapult together.

## How do you find the final velocity of a projectile?

## What is the formula for calculating mechanical advantage?

Calculating Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency of Simple Machines. In general, the IMA = the resistance force, Fr, divided by the effort force, Fe. IMA also equals the distance over which the effort is applied, de, divided by the distance the load travels, dr.

## How is mechanical advantage calculated?

To determine its mechanical advantage you’ll divide the length of the sloped side by the width of the wedge. For example, if the slope is 3 centimeters and the width is 1.5 centimeters, then the mechanical advantage is 2, or 3 centimeters divided by 1.5 centimeters.

## How do you calculate mechanical leverage?

Because levers operate by rotational torque, calculate mechanical advantage by using the arm lengths of the lever. Measure the distances between the fulcrum, or balance point of a lever and each end. Divide the length of the lever’s effort arm by the length of its resistance arm.

## At what angle should a catapult launch for maximum distance?

A projectile, in other words, travels the farthest when it is launched at an angle of 45 degrees.

## What makes a catapult go higher?

Bending farther means more elastic potential energy gets stored in the stick, and when you let go, all this potential energy is converted into energy of motion, so the missile flies through the air at a higher speed. In the case of your catapult, the missile probably flew higher and farther.

## What makes a good catapult?

Answer 1: For a good catapult, you want to have the end of the catapult arm move as fast as possible. The longer you make the catapult arm, the faster the end will move. But, if you make the catapult arm too long or too heavy, it will be harder and harder to accelerate the arm in the first place.

## What is the optimal angle to launch?

It is a truth universally acknowledged that the optimal angle of launch of a projectile is 45 degrees to the horizontal. That is, when launched at this angle, the projectile will travel the greatest transverse distance before hitting the ground.