The potential of power ultrasound involves physical and chemical processes. The physical processes are mainly due to the mechanical effects of the high intensity waves in a medium while the chemical processes are the chemical effects induced by ultrasonic cavitation in liquids.
What is the physics behind the ultrasound?
Definition of Ultrasound Sound travels as a mechanical longitudinal wave in which back-and-forth particle motion is parallel to the direction of wave travel. Ultrasound is high-frequency sound and refers to mechanical vibrations above 20 kHz. Human ears can hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz.
What is the energy range for ultrasound?
In physics the term “ultrasound” applies to all acoustic energy with a frequency above human hearing (20,000 hertz or 20 kilohertz). Typical diagnostic sonographic scanners operate in the frequency range of 2 to 18 megahertz, hundreds of times greater than the limit of human hearing.
What is output power ultrasound?
This force is measured on a mechanical or electronic scale. The ultrasound power output in watts equals the radiation force in grams times the velocity of ultrasound in water (for example, a power of 10 W corresponds to 0.68 g).
What is high power ultrasound?
In contrast, high-power ultrasound is able to produce changes in the material or process to which they are applied, and it is used in a large variety of processes in the food industry (e.g., surface cleaning and decontamination, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, degassing, defoaming, and improvement of mass …
What is piezoelectric effect ultrasound?
The piezoelectric effect converts kinetic or mechanical energy, due to crystal deformation, into electrical energy. This is how ultrasound transducers receive the sound waves.
Why is physics important in ultrasound?
Clinical Significance Understanding ultrasound physics is critical to image acquisition, image optimization, image interpretation, and ultimately clinical integration.
What is the basic principle of ultrasound?
Ultrasound waves are reflected at the surfaces between the tissues of different density, the reflection being proportional to the difference in impedance. If the difference in density is increased, the proportion of reflected sound is increased, and the proportion of transmitted sound is proportionately decreased.
How do ultrasounds produce an image?
The ultrasound image is produced based on the reflection of the waves off of the body structures. The strength (amplitude) of the sound signal and the time it takes for the wave to travel through the body provide the information necessary to produce an image.
What is amplitude of ultrasound?
Amplitude refers to the strength of the sound wave, as represented by the height of the wave (see Fig. 1.1a). Amplitude is measured in units of pressure, Mega Pascals (MPa). Power of the sound wave, refers to the total amount of energy in the ultrasound beam, and is measured in watts [ 16 ].
What is the unit of ultrasound?
Ultrasound frequency is expressed in units of Hertz (1 Hz=1 cycle per second). The range of human hearing is from about 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
What kind of energy is emitted from an ultrasound transducer?
An ultrasound transducer converts electrical energy into mechanical (sound) energy and back again, based on the piezoelectric effect. It is the hand-held part of the ultrasound machine that is responsible for the production and detection of ultrasound waves.
What is Nyquist limit in ultrasound?
The Nyquist limit represents the maximum Doppler shift frequency that can be correctly measured without resulting in aliasing in color or pulsed wave ultrasound.
How is ultrasound intensity measured?
Ultrasound intensity is measured in water, at the point of maximum intensity (spatial peak), averaged over time (temporal average) and derated by 0.3 dB/MHz/cm to estimate the ‘in-situ’ intensity in tissues.
Which is deeper 1mhz or 3mhz?
Therefore, 1-MHz continuous ultrasound, with a half-value depth of approximately 2.3 cm, is frequently used to treat deep tissues that are approximately 2.3 to 5 cm deep. With its smaller half-value depth, 3-MHz ultrasound is frequently used to heat tissues that are more superficial, from 0.8 to 1.6 cm deep.
What is the maximum voltage for a ultrasound transducer?
The ultrasound driver can deliver a 100 V(pp) (peak to peak) square-wave signal across 0-8 MHz ultrasound transducers in 5 ms bursts through continuous wave operation, producing acoustic powers exceeding 130 W.
What does the mechanical index indicate on an ultrasound system?
The mechanical index of the ultrasound beam is the amount of negative acoustic pressure within a ultrasonic field and is used in contrast echocardiography to modulate the output signature of UCAs to incite different microbubble responses.
What is the difference between read zoom and write zoom?
However, READ zoom produces the worse kind of images because it relies on stored images which enlarges the pixel density in that region ( Figure 9a ). On the other hand, WRITE zoom tries to maintain the pixel density by zooming the image live which produces a better spatial resolution.
What is piezoelectric effect in physics?
Piezoelectric Effect is the ability of certain materials to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress. The word Piezoelectric is derived from the Greek piezein, which means to squeeze or press, and piezo, which is Greek for “push”.
What is the piezoelectric effect and how does it work?
Piezoelectricity is the process of using crystals to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, or vice versa. Regular crystals are defined by their organized and repeating structure of atoms that are held together by bonds, this is called a unit cell.
What is attenuation in ultrasound?
The amplitude and intensity of ultrasound waves decrease as they travel through tissue, a phenomenon known as attenuation. Given a fixed propagation distance, attenuation affects high frequency ultrasound waves to a greater degree than lower frequency waves.
How is ultrasound intensity affected by the beam area and power?
From the equation in Figure 12.2 we can identify that the intensity of an ultrasound beam is directly proportional to its power, i.e. if beam power increases, then intensity increases and, conversely, if beam power decreases, the intensity decreases.
Do sonographers use physics?
Many trainee sonographers find physics and technology difficult. For some, this in part arises from memories of the struggle they had with physics and technology at school. Even at school level, physics is often seen as a ‘hard’ subject and not pursued to a higher level.
What factors determine the quality of an ultrasound image?
Abstract. Fat and air are the main factors affecting quality by causing interference in ultrasound. Deterioration in resolution with increasing thickness of overlapping fat has been verified experimentally.
What are 3 uses of ultrasound?
Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It helps diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine an unborn child (fetus) in pregnant women.