A way to overcome ultrasound attenuation is time gain compensation (TGC), in which signal gain is increased as time passes from the emitted wave pulse. This correction makes equally echogenic tissues look the same even if they are located in different depths.
How do you adjust TGC on ultrasound?
- Touch anywhere on the screen and slide your finger left or right to activate the Gain control.
- Use the Near, Mid, and Far sliders to adjust the image as needed by tapping a slider and moving your finger right or left to increase or decrease the percentage.
What is Knobology in ultrasound?
Knobology is a terminology that describes the manipulation of ultrasound knobs and system controls in order to obtain the best image possible from diagnostic ultrasound.
What is dynamic range ultrasound?
Abstract. In medical ultrasound imaging, dynamic range (DR) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the displayed signal to display and it is one of the most essential parameters that determine its image quality.
How do I increase resolution on an ultrasound?
Starting in the overview image the depth is reduced as much as possible. Reducing the depth results in increased frame rate and thus better image resolution. If possible, the width of the image is also reduced, which likewise results in increased image-resolution.
How do you improve lateral resolution on ultrasound?
Strategies to improve lateral resolution include increasing the number of lines per frame and setting multiple focal depths. When using multiple focal depths to improve lateral resolution there is generally a trade for reduced temporal resolution owing to the reduced frame rate.
What is thermal index in ultrasound?
The thermal index (TI) is defined as the ratio W/Wdeg, where W is the acoustic power emitted by the transducer at any time, and Wdeg is the power required to cause a maximum temperature rise of 1°C anywhere in the beam, contributed by ultrasound absorption alone.
What is focal zone in ultrasound?
The focal zone is the narrowest portion of the ultrasonic beam in the tissue, and the point of the emitted beam with the best spatial resolution (Figure 6). When more than a single focal zone is used, more locations in the breast are interrogated, resulting in delayed image acquisition (poor temporal resolution).
What is acoustic impedance in ultrasound?
Acoustic Impedance: The resistance to the propagation of ultrasound waves through tissues. Each tissue type has a unique acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of the density and speed of sound in the tissue.
What is TGC knob?
The TGC control allows the user to select the brightness or darkness of an ultrasound image at different levels. The aim should be to have an ultrasound image that is evenly exposed or illuminated.
Why is time Gain Control TGC needed in ultrasound imaging?
During an ultrasound send-receive cycle, the magnitude of reflected signal depends on the depth of penetration. The purpose of TGC is to normalize the signal amplitude with time; compensating for depth.
Which is deeper 1mhz or 3mhz?
Therefore, 1-MHz continuous ultrasound, with a half-value depth of approximately 2.3 cm, is frequently used to treat deep tissues that are approximately 2.3 to 5 cm deep. With its smaller half-value depth, 3-MHz ultrasound is frequently used to heat tissues that are more superficial, from 0.8 to 1.6 cm deep.
Why is dynamic range important to an ultrasound image?
Dynamic Range (also known as Compression) allows you to tell the ultrasound machine how you want the echo intensity displayed as shades of gray. A broad/wide range will display more shades of gray and an overall smoother image.
How many modes are there in ultrasound?
Four different modes of ultrasound are used in medical imaging (1, 3). These are: A-mode: A-mode is the simplest type of ultrasound. A single transducer scans a line through the body with the echoes plotted on screen as a function of depth.
What is gray map in ultrasound?
The gray map determines how dark or light you prefer to show each level of white/gray/black based upon the strength of the ultrasound signal. Persistence. Adjusting the image persistence causes individual frames of the scan to linger, thus blending them with the images in the successive frames.
What is high resolution ultrasound?
Detailed, high-resolution fetal ultrasound is a safe, noninvasive imaging procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to assess fetal growth and development.
How can ultrasound improve axial resolution?
The spatial pulse length is determined by the wavelength of the beam and the number of cycles (periods) within a pulse. Therefore, to achieve a higher axial resolution using the shortest spatial pulse length possible and fewer number of pulses is advised.
What improves axial resolution?
Higher frequencies will improve the axial resolution. A shorter pulse length will discern two structures more easily than a longer pulse length.
What affects lateral resolution in ultrasound?
Lateral resolution is the image generated when the two structures lying side by side are perpendicular to the beam. This is directly related to the width of the ultrasound beam. Narrower the beam better is the resolution. The width of the beam is inversely related to the frequency.
Which depth of the image has the best lateral resolution?
The lateral resolution is best at the focus or one near zone length- focal depth- from the transducer because the sound beam is narrowest at that point. one one wide reflection is seen on the image.
What factor affects the resolution of an ultrasound image?
Axial resolution is dependent upon various factors, the most important of which being the length of the pulse used to form the beam. This is known as the spatial pulse length (SPL). The shorter the pulse length, the better the axial resolution. In fact the axial resolution limit is defined as being one half of the SPL.
What does MI 0.7 mean on an ultrasound?
E: MI > 0.7 – there is a risk of cavitation if an ultrasound contrast agent containing gas micro-spheres is being used. There is a theoretical risk of cavitation without the presence. of ultrasound contrast agents.
What is the ALARA principle in ultrasound?
The as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle should be observed when adjusting controls that affect the acoustic output and by considering both the transducer dwell time and overall scanning time.
How do you reduce thermal index on ultrasound?
Ultrasound exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) because of the potential for tissue heating when the thermal index exceeds 1. Exposure can be reduced through the use of output control and (or) by reducing the amount of time the beam is focused on one place (dwell time) (1I-1A).
What are focal zones?
Focal Zone: The narrowest part of the ultrasound beam profile when it is emitted from the transducer. In this region, the pulse waves are concentrated resulting increased beam intensity (energy/area).