What is a semiconductor ? Semiconductors. Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics). Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide.
What is the basic of semiconductor?
A semiconductor is a substance whose resistivity lies between the conductors and insulators. The property of resistivity is not the only one that decides a material as a semiconductor, but it has few properties as follows. Semiconductors have the resistivity which is less than insulators and more than conductors.
Why do we study semiconductor in physics?
An obvious, very important motivation for the study of Semiconductor Physics is the fact that the microscopic properties it deals with are responsible for the majority of modern technology. These properties determine the material mechanical strength, how they interact with light, how they conduct electricity, etc.
What are the important topics in semiconductor 12?
- Band theory of solids.
- Basics of semiconductors.
- The PN junction.
- PN junction biasing.
- Zener diode.
- Optoelectronic devices.
- Transistors working.
What are the 3 properties of semiconductors?
- Property 1:The resistivity of a semiconductor is less than an insulator but higher than a conductor.
- Property 2: Semiconductors show a negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
- Property 3: At zero kelvin, semiconductors behave as insulators.
What are the 2 types of semiconductors?
Semiconductors are divided into two categories: Intrinsic Semiconductor. Extrinsic Semiconductor.
What is purpose of semiconductor?
Semiconductors are an essential component of electronic devices, enabling advances in communications, computing, healthcare, military systems, transportation, clean energy, and countless other applications.
Why is it called a semiconductor?
A semiconductor is called a semiconductor because it is a type of material that has an electrical resistance which is between the resistance typical of metals and the resistance typical of insulators, so it kind of, or “semi”-conducts electricity.
How many types of semiconductors are there?
The semiconductor can be classified into two types, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
What is the most basic semiconductor device?
The most common semiconductor device in the world is the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor), also called the MOS transistor. As of 2013, billions of MOS transistors are manufactured every day.
Is a diode a semiconductor?
A diode is a semiconductor device that essentially acts as a one-way switch for current. It allows current to flow easily in one direction, but severely restricts current from flowing in the opposite direction.
How pn junction is formed?
P-n junctions are formed by joining n-type and p-type semiconductor materials, as shown below. Since the n-type region has a high electron concentration and the p-type a high hole concentration, electrons diffuse from the n-type side to the p-type side.
What is pn junction diode?
A p-n junction diode is a basic semiconductor device that controls the flow of electric current in a circuit. It has a positive (p) side and a negative (n) side created by adding impurities to each side of a silicon semiconductor. The symbol for a p-n junction diode is a triangle pointing to a line.
How do semiconductors work?
A semiconductor substance lies between the conductor and insulator. It controls and manages the flow of electric current in electronic equipment and devices. As a result, it is a popular component of electronic chips made for computing components and a variety of electronic devices, including solid-state storage.
What are the advantages of semiconductor?
Semiconductors, unlike vacuum tubes, are shock-proof. Furthermore, they are smaller in size, take up less space, and use less power. Semiconductors are extremely sensitive to temperature and radiation when compared to vacuum tubes. Semiconductors are less expensive than vacuum diodes and have a much longer shelf life.
Why silicon is used in semiconductor?
Silicon is typically found compounded with other elements. Silicon elements are able to bind atoms tightly and in complex arrangements. The abundance of silicon makes it inexpensive and easy to acquire. This is the biggest reason why silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material.
What are the two most used semiconductor materials?
What are the most used semiconductor materials? The most used semiconductor materials are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Of the three, germanium was one of the earliest semiconductor materials used. Germanium has four valence electrons, which are electrons located on the outer shell of the atom.
Is Diamond a semiconductor?
Diamond is a wide-bandgap semiconductor (Egap = 5.47 eV) with tremendous potential as an electronic device material in both active devices, such as high-frequency field-effect transistors (FETs) and high-power switches, and passive devices, such as Schottky diodes.
Who invented semiconductor?
Karl Ferdinand Braun developed the crystal detector, the first semiconductor device, in 1874.
What is semiconductor example?
Examples of Semiconductors: Gallium arsenide, germanium, and silicon are some of the most commonly used semiconductors. Silicon is used in electronic circuit fabrication and gallium arsenide is used in solar cells, laser diodes, etc.
What are p type materials?
What is P-type material? Semiconductors like germanium or silicon doped with any of the trivalent atoms like boron, indium or gallium are called p-type semiconductors. The impurity atom is surrounded by four silicon atoms. It provides the atoms to fill only three covalent bonds as it has only three valence electrons.
Is a semiconductor a chip?
Also known as semis, or chips, semiconductors can be found in thousands of products such as computers, smartphones, appliances, gaming hardware, and medical equipment.
What is the difference between a chip and a semiconductor?
A silicon chip is a very small piece of silicon containing integrated circuits. It is a part of a computer or other electronic equipment. Semiconductor (semiconductor) refers to a material whose conductivity is between a conductor and an insulator at room temperature.
What is Fermi level in semiconductor?
What is Fermi Level? The highest energy level that an electron can occupy at the absolute zero temperature is known as the Fermi Level. The Fermi level lies between the valence band and conduction band because at absolute zero temperature the electrons are all in the lowest energy state.
What is a hole in semiconductor?
Holes and electrons are the two types of charge carriers responsible for current in semiconductor materials. A hole is the absence of an electron in a particular place in an atom. Although it is not a physical particle in the same sense as an electron, a hole can be passed from atom to atom in a semiconductor material.