What is meant by surface tension physics?

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“Surface tension is the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimise surface area”.

What is surface tension and its principle?

The intermolecular force developed at the surface of a liquid that tends to resist the action of external force upon the surface. ( N.m −1) or. The force acting upon a line of unit length across a surface in a direction parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the line. (

What is surface tension in physics and its applications?

The surface tension of a liquid is mainly a force that mainly acts to reduce the surface area of a liquid. The directed contracting force which attracts the molecules at the surface of a liquid towards the interior of the liquid is surface tension.

What is surface tension in 12th physics?

Surface tension is defined as force per unit length acting perpendicular to the tangential line on the surface. It is due to imbalanced attractive forces acting downwards and tends to reduce the surface area of a liquid to minimum.

What are the properties of surface tension?

Surface tension could be defined as the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force, due to the cohesive nature of the water molecules.

Why is surface tension important?

Surface tension determines the efficiency of detergent formulation. The high surface tension of water makes it a relatively poor cleaning detergent. By increasing the temperature of water (as is often done when washing clothes or dishes), the cleaning efficiency increases slightly as surface tension decreases.

What factors affect surface tension?

Surface tension is caused by the effects of intermolecular forces at the interface. Surface tension depends on the nature of the liquid, the surrounding environment and temperature. Liquids where molecules have large attractive intermolecular force will have a large surface tension.

What are the two types of surface tension?

One is an inward force on the surface molecules causing the liquid to contract. Second is a tangential force parallel to the surface of the liquid.

What are the two applications of surface tension?

Applications of Surface tension in daily life are: (i) The surface tension of antiseptic ointments is low which make them to spread over the wound. (ii) Adding detergent in water decreases the surface tension of water and enhances the cleaning action of water and detergent both.

What are the three application of surface tension?

1) Walking of insects on water… Small insects can easily walk on water because their weight is not enough to penetrate the surface of liquid or water…. 2) Rounding of bubbles… The surface tension of water provides the necessary wall tension for the formation of bubbles with respect to water….

How is surface tension measured?

Measurement of surface tension can be performed with a force tensiometer. These instruments are based on measuring the forces exerted on a probe that is positioned at the liquid-gas or liquid-liquid interface.

What is the SI unit of surface energy?

The SI unit of Surface Energy is N/m.

What is surface energy formula?

Surface energy (E) = Energy × [Area]-1 . . . ( 1) Since, Energy = Force × displacement = m × a × displacement. Or, Energy = [M1 × M0 L1 T-2 × L1] Therefore, the dimensional formula of energy = [M1 L2 T-2] . . . (

What is the origin of surface tension?

The surface tension of a liquid results from an imbalance of intermolecular attractive forces, the cohesive forces between molecules: A molecule in the bulk liquid experiences cohesive forces with other molecules in all directions. A molecule at the surface of a liquid experiences only net inward cohesive forces.

What is an example of surface tension?

Examples of Surface Tension In the absence of gravity, the drop would minimize the surface area in order to minimize tension, which would result in a perfectly spherical shape. Insects walking on water. Several insects are able to walk on water, such as the water strider.

What is unit of viscosity?

The unit of viscosity is newton-second per square metre, which is usually expressed as pascal-second in SI units.

What is the highest surface tension?

Besides mercury, water has the highest surface tension for all liquids, which is due to the hydrogen bonding in water molecules. The surface tension of water causes water molecules at the surface of the liquid (in contact with air) to hold closely together, forming an invisible film.

What is the conclusion of surface tension?

Answer: Surface tension has been well- explained by the molecular theory of matter. According to this theory, cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon of surface tension. The molecules well inside the liquid are attracted equally in all directions by the other molecules.

What if there is no surface tension?

And, of course, water droplets (rain) and fog condensing as droplets on surfaces are a function of water’s surface tension. Without this property, water would be a slimy coating and cells would not have shape.

Does temperature affect surface tension?

Effect of Temperature on Surface Tension The surface tension of liquids generally decreases with increase of temperature and becomes zero at critical temperature (when meniscus between the liquid and the vapour disappears).

Does surface tension depend on pressure?

Surface Tension of a liquid depends upon Atmospheric pressure, the nature of liquid and its temperature.

Why does surface tension decrease with temperature?

Solution : Surface tension decreases with increase in temperature because it increases the kinetic energy of the molecules. It also decreases the intermolecular attraction between the molecules.

What are viscosity 3 examples?

  • Honey.
  • Engine Oil.
  • Brake Oil.
  • Lubricant.
  • Cooking Oil.
  • Liquid Soap.
  • Printing Ink.
  • Super Glue.

What are the applications of surface tension in daily life?

  • Depending on the surface tension of water, a needle placed in water can float.
  • Because of the surface tension of water, mosquito eggs can float.
  • Toothpaste contains soap, which helps it spread readily in the mouth by reducing surface tension.

Why does soap break water surface tension?

Detergent and Soap Break Surface Tension It is known as hydrophobic, meaning “water fearing.” By attempting to move away from the water molecules, the hydrophobic ends of the detergent molecules push up to the surface. This weakens the hydrogen bonds holding the water molecules together at the surface.

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