Microfluidics is the science and technology field dealing with miniaturized systems that process, or manipulate, small volumes of fluids (10−9 to 10−18 L), by means of channels with dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers.
How does microfluidic device work?
Microfluidics systems work by using a pump and a chip. Different types of pumps precisely move liquid inside the chip with a rate of 1 μL/minute to 10,000 μL/minute. For comparison, a small water drop is ~10 microliter (μL).
What is the point of microfluidics?
Microfluidic technology enables detection and fluid regulation in one single component; increased sensitivity and specificity to detect target analytes at small volumes overcomes several challenges encountered while using traditional POCT diagnostics (Pandey et al., 2018).
What are the main advantages of using microfluidics?
- Cost savings. Reagents and samples used in biological analysis are often very costly.
- Increased precision. Another advantage of microfluidic systems is the increased precision that they offer.
- Shortened time of experiments.
- Flexible application.
Is microfluidics the future?
Despite being considered only in its “infancy,” microfluidics has the potential to become a widespread, cutting-edge technology with remarkable features in the near future.
Who invented microfluidics?
Frederick Stanley Kipping, the British chemist considered the father of silicon chemistry. The first microfluidic devices were usually made of silicon and glass since the fabrication techniques derived from microelectronics were well known .
How do you make a microfluidic chip?
- Keep the width of features (channels, chambers, …)
- Use no more than two layers including one feature layer sealed by a flat substrate layer.
- Keep aspect ratio (height/width) between 0.5 and 2.
- Keep features only on one side of a layer.
In what scale is microfluidics?
Microfluidics is the science of fluids on the micro and nanometer scale. How small is that? Well, 1 millimeter is equal to 1,000 micrometers, so microfluidic work is done on a scale of about 1/1,000th of a millimeter. For reference, typical bacteria is 0.2 to 2.0 micrometers in diameter.
What is the role of microfluidics technology in the society?
Microfluidic technology has the potential to be used as a platform to investigate interactions between drug carriers and cells, and also the treatment effects of active compounds and drugs. Thus, these platforms can be helpful for filling the gap between animal studies and human clinical trials.
What is microfluidic PCR?
Microfluidics have been widely used for different DNA amplification processes (PCR, qPCR, RT-PCR). Microfluidic devices allow to accelerate PCR processes, reduce reagent consumption, reach high-throughput assays and integrate pre or post-PCR assays on-chip.
Why is PDMS used in microfluidics?
PDMS, as an elastomer, is known for its mold-release properties and ability to replicate features down to the nanoscale, with low shrinkage during cure (around 1%) and excellent elastic properties.
Why is laminar flow important in microfluidics?
It means that in any microchannel, flow is completely laminar and the emergence of turbulence is nearly impossible. More importantly, the laminar flow regime allows the straight parallel line of fluid to flow next to each other without mixing in microchannels except diffusion .
What are microfluidic sensors?
The microfluidic sensor is a membrane-less galvanic cell which consists of two laminar flows running in parallel inside a straight channel. The sensor measures the potential difference between a solution containing 2,4-DCP and a reference solution containing acetate buffer.
Which of these are the properties of a microfluidic device?
Microfluidic devices contain a palm-sized chip imprinted with very small channels and reaction chambers used to detect antibodies against viruses. The chip uses electrokinetic, capillary, vacuum, and other forces to mix and separate liquid samples. These chips are made up of polydimethyl sulfoxide, glass, or paper.
What are the two common methods used for the fabrication of microfluidic systems?
Devices may be fabricated using either direct manufacturing or a replication approach; direct manufacturing is performed using typically either mechanical or energy-assisted methods. Mechanical methods are relatively traditional and use tools to remove unnecessary materials.
How does lab on a chip work?
A lab-on-a-chip is a miniaturized device that integrates into a single chip one or several analyses, which are usually done in a laboratory; analyses such as DNA sequencing or biochemical detection.
What is organ on a chip technology?
Organs-on-chips (OoCs) are systems containing engineered or natural miniature tissues grown inside microfluidic chips. To better mimic human physiology, the chips are designed to control cell microenvironments and maintain tissue-specific functions.
When was microfluidics first used?
Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal technologies.
How wide are microfluidic channels?
The width of the channel is 250 µm, and flow is from left to right.
What is a microfluidic chamber?
The microfluidic chamber consists of a molded elastomeric polymer placed on a glass coverslip (Fig. 1A). A physical barrier with embedded microgrooves connects the somal and axonal compartments. Microgrooves that connect the compartments allow the passage of neurites to the axonal compartment, but not of cell bodies.
What is PDMS material?
Polydimethylsiloxane, called PDMS or dimethicone, is a polymer widely used for the fabrication and prototyping of microfluidic chips. It is a mineral-organic polymer (a structure containing carbon and silicon) of the siloxane family (word derived from silicon, oxygen and alkane).
How do you make PDMS?
Which is a typical size for lab on a chip microfluidic channels?
(a, b), Chip layout: 300 μm × 50 μm channels are used to create laminar interfaces between liquids from different inlets.
What is Millifluidics?
Millifluidics involves manipulating and observing fluids in channels that are 1 millimeter (mm) across. And while millifluidics uses larger amounts of fluid than microfluidics, it’s still a minimal amount compared to tests performed with traditional testing methods.