What is the physics of solar cells?

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When light energy strikes the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current — that is, electricity.

What is solar cell PDF?

A solar cell is an electronic device which directly converts sunlight into electricity. Light shining on the solar cell produces both a current and a voltage to generate electric power.

What is solar cell in physics class 12?

A solar cell is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

What is Class 3 solar cell?

Solar cells use the Sun’s light rather than its heat. When the Sun shines on a solar cell, the cell turns the light energy into electricity. A single solar cell makes only a little electricity. However, groups of solar cells can provide electricity for whole buildings.

What are 3 applications of solar cells?

  • Solar Farms. Many acres of PV panels can provide utility-scale power—from tens of megawatts to more than a gigawatt of electricity.
  • Remote Locations.
  • Stand-Alone Power.
  • Power in Space.
  • Building-Related Needs.
  • Military Uses.
  • Transportation.

How does a solar cell work?

When sunlight strikes a solar cell, electrons in the silicon are ejected, which results in the formation of “holes”—the vacancies left behind by the escaping electrons. If this happens in the electric field, the field will move electrons to the n-type layer and holes to the p-type layer.

Which material is used in solar cell?

Silicon. Silicon is, by far, the most common semiconductor material used in solar cells, representing approximately 95% of the modules sold today.

What is the structure of solar cell?

PV cells are wafers made of crystalline semiconductors covered with a grid of electrically conductive metal traces. Many of the photons reaching a PV cell have energies greater than the amount needed to excite the electrons into a conductive state.

Where are solar cells used?

Uses of solar cells. Solar cells are very useful in powering space vehicles such as satellites and telescopes (e.g. Hubble). They provide a very economical and reliable way of powering objects which would otherwise need expensive and cumbersome fuel sources.

What type of cell is solar cell?

A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

What are advantages of solar cell?

  • Renewable Energy. The most obvious advantage of solar cells is that they use solar energy, which is a renewable energy source.
  • Economy-friendly Energy.
  • Environmentally Friendly Energy.
  • Innovative Energy.
  • Long Term Energy.
  • Selling Energy.
  • Infinite Energy.

What are limitations of solar cell?

  • INTERMITTENCY ISSUES. Like all other renewable energy sources, solar energy and PV cells have intermittency problems.

What is the efficiency of solar cell?

While solar panel efficiency is generally around 15-20%, solar cell efficiency can reach 42% in some cases. However, unless otherwise stated, the performance of solar cells is measured under laboratory conditions.

What are the 10 uses of solar energy?

  • 01 of 09. Solar Powered Ventilation Fans.
  • 02 of 09. Solar Heating for Your Swimming Pool.
  • 03 of 09. Solar Water Heater.
  • 04 of 09. Solar House Heating.
  • 05 of 09. Solar Powered Pumps.
  • 06 of 09. Charging Batteries With Solar Power.
  • 07 of 09. Power Your Home With Photo-Electric.
  • 08 of 09.

What is characteristics of solar cell?

The basic characteristics of a solar cell are the short-circuit current (ISC), the open-circuit voltage (VOC), the fill factor (FF) and the solar energy conversion efficiency (η). The influence of both the diode saturation current density and of ISC on VOC, FF and η is analyzed for ideal solar cells.

What are two advantages of solar cell principle?

A solar cell is made of n-type as well as p-type silicon sandwiched together. It creates energy by causing electrons to hop across the junction connecting two types of silicon utilizing sunlight: Light molecules (photons) attack the cell’s top surface when sunlight shines on it.

In which principle solar cell is depend?

The working principle of solar cells is based on the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic effect is the production of electricity by a material when it is exposed to the light.

How do solar cells produce energy?

Solar technologies convert sunlight into electrical energy either through photovoltaic (PV) panels or through mirrors that concentrate solar radiation. This energy can be used to generate electricity or be stored in batteries or thermal storage.

How is voltage generated in a solar cell?

Solar radiation may be converted directly into electricity by solar cells (photovoltaic cells). In such cells, a small electric voltage is generated when light strikes the junction between a metal and a semiconductor (such as silicon) or the junction between two different semiconductors.

How many layers are in a solar cell?

Layers of a PV Cell It is comprised of two distinct layers (p-type and n-type—see Figure 3), and is what actually converts the Sun’s energy into useful electricity through a process called the photovoltaic effect (see below).

Which type of semiconductor is solar cell?

Solar cells are made up of silicon which is a p-type semiconductor.

Why silicon is used in solar cell?

Silicon solar cells have recorded an efficiency of over 20%. When Silicon is doped with impurities like gallium and arsenic atoms, its ability to capture the sun’s energy and convert it to electricity is improved considerably. Silicon is non-toxic. Crystalline silicon is a stable material.

What is the effect of temperature in solar cell?

Solar cells are sensitive to temperature changes. An increase in temperature reduces the band gap of the semiconductor, thus affecting most of the parameters of semiconductor material. The decrease in the band gap of a semiconductor with increase in temperature is an increase in the energy of electrons in the material.

How many types of solar cells are there?

Solar cells can be divided into three broad types, crystalline silicon-based, thin-film solar cells, and a newer development that is a mixture of the other two.

Is a solar cell a diode?

The solar cell is effectively a diode with a reverse-bias current source provided by light-generated electrons and holes.

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