What is Thomson effect in physics?

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Thomson effect, the evolution or absorption of heat when electric current passes through a circuit composed of a single material that has a temperature difference along its length. This transfer of heat is superimposed on the common production of heat associated with the electrical resistance to currents in conductors.

What is Thomson effect Class 12?

Solution : Thomson showed that if two points in a conductor are at different temperatures, the density of electrons at these points will differ and as a result the potential difference is created between these points.

What is called zero Thomson effect?

The Joule Thomson coefficient for an ideal gas is equal to zero as the enthalpy of the gas is dependent on the temperature.

What is the basic principle of Joule-Thomson effect?

The Joule-Thomson effect, also known as the Joule-Kelvin effect, refers to the change which takes place in fluid’s temperature as it flows from a region of higher pressure to lower pressure. One can describe the Joule-Thomson effect by means of the Joule-Thomson coefficient.

What is Seebeck effect and Thomson effect?

Thomson or Seebeck Effect: The phenomenon of generation of an electric current in a thermocouple by keeping its junctions at different temperatures is called seebeck effect or thermoelectric effect. In order to understand seebeck effect consider a closed circuit consisting of two different metals Cu and Fe.

What is the difference between positive and negative Thomson effect?

The metals which show the positive Thomson effect are $Cu$ , $Sn$ , $Ag$ , $Cd$ , $Zn$ , etc. In the negative Thomson effect, it is found that the hot end is at a low potential and the cold end is at a higher potential.

What is the causes of Thomson effect?

Origin of Thomson effect Due to the temperature difference between the two points of the same conductor, there is a difference in the electron density. The electron density is higher at low temperatures than at higher temperatures. Thus, there will be a potential difference between two points of the same connector.

What is positive Thomson effect?

Positive Thomson effect Heat is evolved when current is passed from hotter end to the colder end and heat is absorbed when current is passed from colder end to hotter end. The metals which show positive Thomson’s effect are Cu, Sn, Ag, Cd, Zn, etc. Fig.

What is zero Thomson effect give an example material?

When Pb material is used, irrespective of the polarity of the battery no heat is evolved or absorbed (practically). Hence, no Thomson effect will occur across Pb material.

Which is constant in Joule-Thomson effect?

In a Joule–Thomson expansion, the fluid pressure decreases and thus it is likely that the temperature of the fluid also changes, since enthalpy is constant. Most pressurized gases cool when pressure is reduced to atmospheric conditions at room temperature.

Which gases are used in Joule-Thomson effect?

Helium and hydrogen are two gases whose Joule–Thomson inversion temperatures at a pressure of one atmosphere are very low (e.g., about 45 K, −228 °C for helium). Thus, helium and hydrogen warm when expanded at constant enthalpy at typical room temperatures.

What is reverse Joule-Thomson effect?

The Joule–Thomson inversion temperature, depends on the pressure of the gas before expansion. Temperaturesign of ∂Psign of μJTthus sign of ∂Tbelow inversion temp. −+−above inversion −−+ The final pressure is always lower than the initial pressure and thus the change is always negative.

In which temperature the Joule-Thomson effect is zero?

Solution : Joule Thomson coefficient is zero at inversion temperature.

Why is the Joule-Thomson coefficient important?

An important property of a given gas is its Joule-Thomson coefficient [1-3]. These coefficients are important from two standpoints; (i) intermolecular interaction, and (ii) liquefaction of gases. A given closed system contains one mole of gaseous chemical substance j at temperature T and pressure p.

What is JT experiment?

The study of the dependence of the energy and enthalpy of real gases on volume (pressure) was done by Joule in association with Thomson who devised a different procedure. They allowed gas to expand freely through a porous plug, or frit.

What is the difference between Seebeck and Thomson effect?

The Thomson effect depends both on the temperature gradient and charge current across the material [4]. Unlike the Peltier and Seebeck effects, the Thomson effect does not require the presence of two materials—it can also occur in a homogenous slab of one substance.

Why is Thomson’s effect different for different materials?

Thomson effect In different materials, the Seebeck coefficient is not constant in temperature, and so a spatial gradient in temperature can result in a gradient in the Seebeck coefficient. If a current is driven through this gradient, then a continuous version of the Peltier effect will occur.

What are the applications of Seebeck effect?

Applications of Seebeck Effect It is used in automobile industries to employ a thermoelectric generator for improving the efficiency of fuel. Seebeck effect is used to measure the potential difference between two semiconductors.

What is the difference between Seebeck effect and Peltier effect and Thomson effect?

The major difference between Thomson effect and other two is that in Thomson effect we deal with only single metallic rod and not with thermo-couple as in Peltier effect and Seebeck effect.

What is Peltier coefficient?

The amount of heat energy absorbed or evolved at a Junction of two different metals when 1 coulomb of electricity flows at the junction is called the Peltier Coefficient, denoted by π.

What are the laws of thermocouple?

  • 1) The Law of Intermediate Metals. A circuits EMFs are algebraically additive unless the circuit is at a uniform temperature.
  • 2) The Law of Homogeneous Metals.
  • 3) The Law of Intermediate Temperatures.

What is the principle of Peltier effect?

The Peltier effect is the reverse phenomenon of the Seebeck effect; the electrical current flowing through the junction connecting two materials will emit or absorb heat per unit time at the junction to balance the difference in the chemical potential of the two materials.

What is the difference between Joule and Peltier effect?

2) In the Peltier effect the heat is generated at one junction and absorbed at another junction. While in Joule effect the heat is generated throughout the wire. Note: While comparing both the effects, the Joule effect will have more heat generated hence it is square of current.

Where is Peltier effect used?

The Peltier effect is used in heat pumps, which remove heat (although they can also add heat) using a controlled, reversible solid state device (meaning there are no mechanical parts). Solid State heat pumps using the Peltier effect will effectively transfer heat from one side of the device to the other.

Is Thomson effect reversible?

Thomson who also showed the existence of a third thermoelectric effect, known as the Thomson effect. Thomson effect describes reversible heating or cooling, in a homogeneous semiconductor material, when there is both a flow of electric current and a temperature gradient [2, 3].

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